Tag Archives: Technology

BSUFN Symposium 2017 – Provocation: The problem with the past

At this year’s symposium we decided not to have a keynote speaker, but to open up the floor to anyone attending to issue a provocation relating to food, it’s production, politics or study. There were four provocations.

This is the provocation given by Food Network member Abigail Wincott of the University of Brighton.

I study alternative food movements and politics of lifestyle and consumption. These lifestyle discourses are often very politicised. There is stuff relating to personal health, fashions and fads, like macarons or kale. But a lot of it is more or less overtly about a number of big issues that really are important.

There is a concern for social justice or fairness – an interest in the impact on workers and consumers of the quest for excessive profits, and of the dominance of corporations over the food system. A lot of attention is paid to the environmental damage caused by the same.

In addition, I’ve found there is a lot of concern expressed about a loss of diversity. This may be expressed as a blandness and homogeneity of food culture or of food itself and also characterises the experience of shopping for it. This is generally regarded as a negative byproduct of globalised capitalist food systems.

There is a concern about obesity, of course. This isn’t just a personal issue in lifestyle media, it is talked about as a social issue, one that the government or industry or society needs to take charge of.

Finally, there is a lot of talk about loss – loss of foods, loss of knowledge, a loss of pleasure. For example there are lots of references to the way people don’t know how to shop for the best, cheapest foods anymore, that they don’t sit and eat together anymore. In a sense this is an idea of a loss of pleasure in life. I guess this is also connected closely to the sense of homogeneity, and to the colonisation of life by corporations.

Now in these lifestyle stories about what is wrong with food and what puts it right, ‘the past’ keeps cropping up. The past takes various forms:

  • nostalgia for the way things used to be or taste
  • the past as a benchmark (a dinner plate used to be so big, people used to spend X amount on food, people used to know how to cook)
  • heritage – protect what is disappearing before it is lost forever
  • retro or historic themes or imagery: The ministry of food, bunting, wartime and austerity, for example.

I am partial to all of this myself, and of course I write about the uses of the past in lifestyle media. I’m not going to join in the dismissal of these uses of the past as automatically socially conservative, elitist or misinformed. People are using these ‘pasts’ to argue for different and better futures.

But I think we have to give some more thought to the way we use the past.

When we think about the future through the past, that affects what we think about, the solutions we come up with and how we feel about them. My problem with our uses of the past are that we tend to think in terms of individual solutions (lifestyle, individual consumer choice) and not to think about the modern state and complex social organisation, or modern technology.

Our ideas about the past are culturally produced: western, gendered, classed, colonial. They’re not a window onto reality.

Thinking through the past isn’t ubiquitous, people buy novel and high tech foods. People start co-ops and campaign for government regulation using a health science frame instead of a nostalgia frame, for example. But it’s pretty ubiquitous among alternative food types and that includes campaigners and academics. journalists, food writers…

It seems to me that these uses of the past are a heuristic. They have allowed us to boil down some very complex considerations in ways that allow us to ‘feel’ what is wrong or right, at a glance. Simple, traditional, like our grandparents cooked and ate, like other people’s grandparents cooked and ate – these things can come to ‘feel’ right. That helps us make fast judgements about what to eat, what to buy and what causes to support.

This heuristic has served its purpose and I think now it’s holding us back. We need to be more critical. We could cast our historical net wider for more unusual practices and ideas.

We need to ask more specific questions. The Green Revolution, mechanised production of food – are they just 100% intrinsically bad, or specifically bad for contingent reasons, like who profits from them or particular techniques that can be changed?

That would allow us to try some thought experiments. What if… we had factories making food, run by not-for-profit organisations? Might they be more energy efficient than home cooking, each of us heating our own ovens in our own home kitchens? That can’t be ‘felt’ to be right, within the dominant lifestyle discourse, which says, go back to the home, go back to traditional methods of production, go back to the small producer.

Industrialisation and high tech solutions to food problems are collective, public approaches to feeding the world. At the moment they are largely profit-making, but that doesn’t make them private in the sense of individual or small-scale. They are mass solutions to mass problems. This collective action on feeding the world has been developing over thousands of years. Social organisation is something people do really well. That mass organisation, planning and economies of scale are hidden in almost all the discourses of good food that look to the past.

The possible exception is the nostalgia for the post-war era – the idea of the Ministry of Food and the benevolent state, which Rebecca Bramall and others have written about. This is a time when people believed more wholeheartedly in progress and modernity. When the British had been hungry until they had been fed by state organised rations. They knew the past could be hungry and dirty and unregulated. People were a bit happier to embrace the new and the large-scale.

But generally,still our heuristic holds us back Some new ideas can’t be understood, don’t make sense if we look through the past in ways we do – tackling global social problems as individuals.

What injustices will become visible, if we stop assuming our ideas about the past are neutral and ‘true’? What kind of society-wide solutions could we find, that we have never found before, if we stop using the past as our benchmark? Who might we hold to account if we stop focusing on food as individual choice?

Would you like to post a provocation about food and its research? Let us know using the contact form and we’ll get back to you.


Keeping Bees Busy: Complex Issues and the Global Decline of Bees

This post was shared by Rachael Taylor on 15th June 2015.

The decline in the population of bees, nationally and globally, has been much reported in the media over the past couple of years. Bees are important pollinators, transferring pollen from one plant to another. Due to their role in pollinating plants bees are essential for food production. Therefore, the recent international discourse and the ongoing research being done around the world regarding the decline of bees is relevant to some of the topics of interest to BSUFN and associated members.

There are multiple complicated causes of the decline in bee populations cited by scientific research, bee conservation activists and the media. This post will briefly outline some of the issues which are relevant to some of the discussions being held within BSUFN.

Pesticides and Policy Intervention

Agrochemicals have been widely disucssed in relation to the decline in bees globally. Pesticides are now known to be damaging to the health of numerous bee species, as well as butterflies and other insects which are beneficial for pollination and crop health. In particular, neonicotinoid insecticides have been identified as contributing to the decline in bee population. Some of the agrochemical manufacturers even admit that neonicotinoid insecticides are damaging the health of bee colonies.

Bee with WillowThe loss of bees as pollinators threatens crop production. With research showing the significant impact neonicotinoid insecticides are having on bees, in 2013 the European Union (EU) took steps to limit the decline in bee populations by banning certain pesticides. This is a significant policy intervention to contribute to EU efforts to support the health of bee populations. EU restrictions on pesticide use are among the strictest in the world.

However, this policy raises some practical, financial, and ethical questions within the food system. In 2014, the first year since the ban on neonicotinoids came into force, farmers throughout Europe reported widespread damage to crops caused by pests (for example, as reported in The Guardian here). The ban on pest-killing chemicals meant that crops were destroyed and yields were lower.

So, the questions centre around the relative value of the loss of the global bee population and the value of the crop yields lost to pests. In this context value refers not only to monetary value but also the subjective pratical and moral value of the production of food required for humans to survive and of biodiversity and species conservation.

At a time when the need to increase food production globally is widely recognised, is it more important to secure crop yields by using pesticides to feed the growing population and undernourished? Should society allow the continued use of pesticides in the knowledge that they may eventually result in the extinction of bees? Or should we focus on protecting bees as pollinators to secure long-term sustainability of food production? Would there be more value in developing technologies which do not damage bees but also secure crop yields? In my opinion, it is not possible to answer these questions. Partly because they are subjective questions and every individual will have their own thoughts, and partly because the issues of food production and the decline in bees are vastly more complicated than allowing or banning the use of neonicotinoid insecticides.

Other Problems, Diverse Solutions

Another cause of the decline in bees is a worldwide increase in monoculture, where fields are planted with a single crop, and increase in size of fields, sometimes thousands of hectares of just one crop variety. Monocropping significantly reduces the biodiversity of these fields which in turn significantly restricts the suitable habitat and food sources for bee species.

Some activists call for a widespread adoption of agro-ecological methods to crop production. This would include growing a variety of crop types together, including cereals, vegetables, and fruits. Some also argue for ecological pest management such as using natural predators to eat crop pests rather than the use of chemical pesticides.

Bees and honeycombBees are also prone to diseases and infestation from bee-killing mites. In particular, an Asian mite, Varroa destructor, has been a cause of widespread loss of bee colonies throughout Asia, Europe and the Americas in the past couple of deacdes. This cause of bee decline has been researched and reported more widely in the USA and appears in fewer media reports in the UK, although the histroy of breeding bees to be resistant to the mites began in the UK a century ago.

In the USA there have been efforts to develop genetically modified varieties of bees which are resistant to Varroa destructor. Others argue that the mites will in turn become resistant to the modified bees and suggest that bee species should be left to evolve resistance on thier own. This raises more un-answerable questions on the value of technological advances versus evolution.

There are a number of ways in which science and technology are contributing to the challenges of food production and protecting bees, whether through genetically modified bees, pesticide-tolerant bees, or crops which are resistant to pest without the need for chemical pesticicdes. However, the vast literature on the topic suggests that technology alone will not be sufficient to meet the dual challenge of increasing food production now and sustaining production in the long-term by ensuring bee populations thrive.  There will also need to be a range of shifts in farming practices, well-informed policy interventions, conservation strategies, and civil society action. There need to be multiple, diverse and widespread efforts to sustain food production and bee species in our diverse and ever-changing world.